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In the Grand Campaign, Iran are depicted as occupying four territories: the Zagros and the Persian Gulf in Western Asia; as well as the capital, Persia, in Eurasia, and Carmania in southern Asia. The Iranians start off as being at war with Russia, and will frequently seek to gain control of Eurasia. For this reason, do not expect any alliances with them if you play as the Russians or control any land in the Middle East or Eurasia. The Iranians, however, are happy to ally with other factions, but will never willingly agree to a capitulation agreement - you must either ally with them or destroy them outright.
For a regional power in the Caucasus, the Qajar are rather introverted — the shahs, after all, came to power only a generation or two ago and are still trying to hold on to the Peacock Throne after overthrowing the bloody Afsharis and the ineffectual Zandis. Qajar Iran is very open to peace, as long as it is allowed access to the Zagros, Persian Gulf, and Carmania, although it will sometimes send armies to conquer Central Asia too. The Qajar polity often allies itself to France and Austria — although alliances with the Qajars as Britain, Prussia or EVEN the Ottomans, historically the old enemy of the Iranians, are very much possible.
If a world war was started and Britain is defeated, the Iranians will eventually be assimilated by the Turks to form a pan-Islamic empire, the Jihadian caliphate. This is only possible if you are playing as any faction other than Britain. A new Ottoman-Qajar war will break out, and in three turns you will get an event saying that Jihadia is forming.